This page was draw up by Stefano Ziani .
The Scarabaeinae are a very heterogeneous subfamily, with 10 tribes, 234 genera and close to 5000 described species worldwide. Members of the subfamily are commonly called "dung beetles". Most of them feed on vertebrate (mostly mammalian) dung, but there are also species specialized on carrion, fungi, rotting fruit and other decomposing plant material. The subfamily includes the so-called telecoprid nesters, . scarabs that fashion a ball of dung, roll it on the surface and bury it away from the dung mass, either for feeding or for providing a broad mass for their progeny. The group includes the Scarabaeus species which were revered by the ancient Egyptians.
In the Palearctic region the Scarabaeinae are grouped in nine tribes, with about 40 genera. Seven tribes, Coprini, Gymnopleurini, Oniticellini, Onitini, Onthophagini, Scarabaeini and Sisyphini, are distributed in the Levant, with 15 genera and more than 90 species. For some of them, Levantine records are very old, and need confirmation. Four species are reliably endemic, all of the tribe Onthophagini.