Pauling's estimate makes no allowance for the many correlations introduced from the closed hydrogen-bonded loops. The rationale is that the chances of a bond being allowed in a ring of hydrogen bonds are slightly greater than ½ as the linkages are correlated. The hydrogen bond being donated from the last water molecule in the ring of water molecules to the first molecule in that ring finds a water molecule that has 2/3 free space rather than 2/4. Thus the (½ ˣ ½) term is an underestimate and Pauling's estimate is low; see [ 717 ] for further discussion of this point. A better estimate of the zero-point entropy , from averaging multiple simulations, is R ˣ Ln() = J ˣ mol -1 ˣ K -1 [ 1090 ]; about 1% higher.
This BioCoach module is designed to help you review cell structure. You will find information about the structure of prokaryotic cells and the structure of eukaryotic cells, with a focus on the latter. Animations and interactive activities will enrich your review experience in a dynamic way. This module is designed to be a supplement to, but not a replacement for, your textbook and classroom notes. You can test your understanding of morphology and function of the key structural components described by using the Self-Quiz at the end of the module.