There are certain known risk factors which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in an individual. If an individual is at moderate or high risk for cardiovascular disease based on these risk factors or having symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, excessive fatigue, palpitation, syncope early evaluation can lead to diagnosis of cardiovascular disease before it causes irreversible damage and disability. Based on your individual risk factors, to find out if you are at increased risk of having heart attack, go to: “Who is at Risk for a Heart Attack?”
Panic disorder is characterised by the repeated occurrence of unexpected panic attacks, during which the individual experiences a strong fear with anticipation of death. These attacks are often accompanied by somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dyspnoea or faintness. Those suffering from panic disorder have persistent anticipatory fear of recurrent attacks and feel anxious even while they have no occurrence of panic attacks for a certain period. Panic disorder is strongly associated with an increased risk for agoraphobia and depression. The prevalence of panic disorder is reported to be around 2 to 3 percent in the general population. Two broad categories of treatment have been shown to be effective in treating panic disorder, one being pharmacotherapy with antidepressants or benzodiazepines, the other being psychotherapy. These treatments are often combined, yet the efficacy of combining psychotherapy and benzodiazepine for panic disorder is unclear, despite its widespread use. This review included randomised controlled trials comparing the combination of psychotherapy and a benzodiazepine with either the psychotherapy or the benzodiazapine alone for people with panic disorder. We were able to include only three trials in this review. Two could be used in the comparison of the combination of psychotherapy and benzodiazepine versus psychotherapy alone and one in the comparison of the combination with benzodiazepine. These comparisons involved just 166 patients and 77 patients, respectively. These small numbers make it difficult to detect any differences between combination treatments and either treatment alone. The trials which compared the combination of treatments with psychotherapy alone (both using behaviour therapy) indicated no differences in response between the two approaches, either during the intervention, at the end of the intervention, or at the last follow-up time point. The trial which compared the combination of treatments with a benzodiazepine alone demonstrated no differences in response during the intervention. Although the combination of treatments appeared to be more effective than the benzodiazepine alone at the end of treatment, no significant differences were observed at the 7-month follow-up. Before evidence-based treatment recommendations are possible, more randomised controlled trials are required, comparing the combination of psychotherapy and benzodiazepines with either treatment alone, and involving enough people to be able to detect a true difference between the treatments if one exists.