Studies reporting exacerbations requiring OCS showed no difference between the two add-ons, but our confidence in the effect was low due to inconsistency between studies and because the confidence intervals ( CI ) included significant benefit of either treatment ( odds ratio ( OR ) , 95% CI to ; 1753 participants; 3 studies); three more people per 1000 might have an exacerbation on LAMA, but the CIs ranged from 29 fewer to 61 more. Imprecision was also an issue for serious adverse events and exacerbations requiring hospital admission, rated low (serious adverse events) and very low quality (exacerbations requiring hospital admission), because there were so few events in the analyses.
There is some evidence that sun exposure can accelerate steroid-induced skin atrophy, the development of which can be limited by protecting the skin, particularly the face and arms, from the sun. Daily use of a broad-spectrum sunscreen (UVB and UVA block) and appropriate protective clothing is recommended. 10 , 12 - 14 Patients on corticosteroids should also be encouraged to regularly use moisturisers on their arms and legs, as these may reduce bruising and tearing of the skin from minor trauma. 11 Evidence suggests that topical tretinoin can increase the epidermal thickness of sun-damaged atrophic skin, but long-term use may be necessary. 14 In dermatological practice, topical retinoids are used to help reverse skin atrophy caused by sun exposure or corticosteroid use.
There have been no randomized trials examining the effect of hydrocortisone given after the first week of life or used to treat infants with prolonged ventilator dependence. One retrospective cohort study compared infants who required assisted ventilation and oxygen after the first one to two weeks of age and received hydrocortisone with a group of healthier infants who did not receive hydrocortisone.  Infants treated with hydrocortisone experienced decreasing oxygen requirements and were successfully weaned from assisted ventilation. After seven days of treatment, there were no differences in oxygen requirements between the two groups. On follow-up, there were no differences in head circumference, neurological outcome, psychomotor development or school performance. Magnetic resonance imaging performed at eight years of age on a similar cohort of infants treated with hydrocortisone showed that although, overall, children born preterm had significantly reduced grey matter volumes compared to term children, there were no differences in the intracranial volumes, grey matter volumes or white matter volumes between children who did and did not receive hydrocortisone for treatment of CLD.  There were also no differences in neurocognitive outcomes, assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children.