In any case, there is nonetheless a good deal of evidence to indicate that modafinil is producing at least a portion of its wakefulness-promoting effects by acting as a DRI, or at least via activation of the dopaminergic system. In support of modafinil acting as a dopaminergic agent, its wakefulness-promoting effects are abolished in DAT knockout mice (although it is important to note that DAT knockout mice show D 1 and D 2 receptor and norepinephrine compensatory abnormalities, which might confound this finding), reduced by both D 1 and D 2 receptor antagonists (although conflicting reports exist),  and completely blocked by simultaneous inactivation of both D 1 and D 2 receptors.  In accordance, modafinil shows full stimulus generalization to other DAT inhibitors including cocaine, methylphenidate, and vanoxerine, and discrimination is blocked by administration of both ecopipam (SCH-39166), a D 1 receptor antagonist, and haloperidol , a D 2 receptor antagonist.  Partial substitution was seen with the DRA dextroamphetamine and the D 2 receptor agonist PNU-91356A , as well as with nicotine (which indirectly elevates dopamine levels through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ). 
In 2015, 53 percent of refugees worldwide originated from Somalia, Afghanistan, and Syria.  In a Global Trends Report by the UNHRC, approximately 65 million people around the world have been forced from their home.  Out of this number, million are refugees, over half of the demographic under the age of 18.  Some of the top countries absorbing these displaced peoples are Pakistan ( million), Lebanon ( million), and Turkey ( million). In times of violence, people are displaced from their homes and seek places where they are welcome, periodically meeting places they are not welcome.