Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the continuum of renal dysfunction

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NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

When and how much to take
NSAIDs should ideally be taken with some food, or at least with milk or yoghurt to avoid irritation of the gastric mucosa (. the inner lining of the stomach). It is important not to exceed the recommended dose to avoid possible serious side-effects. There is also no benefit in taking more than a certain dose, since these drugs have a ceiling effect. This means that above a certain dose, taking even more of this medication will not yield any extra beneficial effects, but will considerably increase the risk for side-effects.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: NOT FOR HUMAN USE. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. This product contains material that can be irritating to skin and eyes. Animals intended for human consumption must not be slaughtered within 38 days treatment. This product is not approved for use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older, including dry dairy cows. Use in these cattle may cause drug residues in milk and/or in calves born to these cows. A withdrawal period has not been established in pre-ruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. Do not use in animals that have shown hypersensitivity to florfenicol or flunixin. Not for use in animals intended for breeding purposes. The effects of florfenicol and flunixin on bovine reproductive performance, pregnancy, and lactation have not been determined. When administered according to the label directions, RESFLOR GOLD may induce a transient local reaction in the subcutaneous and underlying muscle tissue. Click here for full product information.

SOURCES: Byron Cryer, MD, spokesman, American Gastroenterological Association; associate professor of medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Nieca Goldberg, MD, spokeswoman for the American Heart Association; chief of women's cardiac care, Lennox Hill Hospital, New York; author, Women Are Not Small Men: Lifesaving Strategies For Preventing And Healing Heart Disease In Women . John Klippel, MD, president and CEO, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. Scott Zashin, clinical assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; author of Arthritis Without Pain . American College of Rheumatology web site. Arthritis Foundation web site. American Heart Association web site. American College of Gastroenterology web site. American Gastroenterological Association web site. American Academy of Family Physicians web site. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology web site.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the continuum of renal dysfunction

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the continuum of renal dysfunction

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: NOT FOR HUMAN USE. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. This product contains material that can be irritating to skin and eyes. Animals intended for human consumption must not be slaughtered within 38 days treatment. This product is not approved for use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older, including dry dairy cows. Use in these cattle may cause drug residues in milk and/or in calves born to these cows. A withdrawal period has not been established in pre-ruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. Do not use in animals that have shown hypersensitivity to florfenicol or flunixin. Not for use in animals intended for breeding purposes. The effects of florfenicol and flunixin on bovine reproductive performance, pregnancy, and lactation have not been determined. When administered according to the label directions, RESFLOR GOLD may induce a transient local reaction in the subcutaneous and underlying muscle tissue. Click here for full product information.

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