Bortezomib, a boronic acid dipeptide, is a highly selective, reversible inhibitor of the 26S proteasome which primarily functions in the degradation of mis-folded proteins and is essential for the regulation of the cell cycle. Exposure to Bortezomib has been shown to stabilize p21, p27, and p53, as well as the proapoptotic Bid and Bax proteins, caveolin-1, and inhibitor κB-α, which prevents activation of nuclear factor κB-induced cell survival pathways. Bortezomib also promotes the activation of the proapoptotic c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Alteration of the levels of these cellular proteins leads to inhibition of proliferation, migration, and promotion of apoptosis of cancer cells.  Bortezomib is shown to penetrate into cells and inhibit proteasome-mediated intracellular proteolysis of long-lived proteins with a concentration that inhibits 50% of the proteolysis of ∼ μM. The average growth inhibition of 50% value for Bortezomib across the entire panel of 60 cancer cell lines derived from multiple human tumors from the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) is 7 nM. Treatment of PC-3 cells with Bortezomib (100 nM) for 8 h results in the accumulation of cells in G2-M, with a corresponding decrease in the number of cells in G1. Bortezomib kills PC-3 cells at 24 and 48 hr with IC50 of 100 and 20 nM, respectively. Bortezomib induces nuclear condensation at 16–24 hr after treatment. Bortezomib treatment leads to PARP cleavage in a time-dependent manner with concentrations as low as 100 nM being effective at 24 hr. 
The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.     
The present mansuscript is a very exhaustive and comprehensive compilation well supported with evidence based updated information narrating the potential role and useful applications of several medicinal plant s and herbs in treating and combating important bacterial pathogens and various types of bacterial diseases. It systematically covers most of the salient beneficial antibacterial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. A special focus has also been given to various important phytoconstituents present in various herbs, their biological activities and pharmacological principles, mechanism of actions along with useful antibacterial effects with classical examples. Due emphasis has been made regarding current scientific approaches and advancements along with future perspectives of herbal remedies with a vision to counter the emerging problem of antimicrobial resistance by exploring rich heritage of medicinal herbs found in nature. The review will certainly help in promoting and popularizing medicinal plant s and herbs as potent alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. It will be highly useful for researchers, biologists, pharamacists, medical and veterinary professionals, drug and pharmaceutical industries, animal sector (livestock and poultry industry), medicinal practioners and the common man too. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials could also help obtain optimum production from animals apart from protecting health of both animals and humans. It can also take care of various public health concerns associated with food safety issues viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats which would altogether help in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals in a holistic way.