The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.
The 2015 New Reconciliation Memorandum follows up on previous charters developed within the context of the company network Erfolgsfaktor Familie (Family as a Success Factor) to help identify where progress has been made in achieving work-life balance, where challenges remain, and to draw up guidelines. It calls for equal sharing among men and women and appeals to employers to offer “flexitime” arrangements and reduced full-time working hours for both fathers and mothers, known as vollzeitnah , as well as more affordable,quality childcare. The 2015 parental leave reform has also made it easier for parents to combine part-time work and taking leave, and provides financial incentives to encourage both partners in a family to do 25-30 hours/week of paid work for at least four months.